Enormous crowds of worshippers have thronged Mecca, Islam's holiest city, for the biggest Hajj pilgrimage in years, with more than two million expected to attend.
Pilgrims in white robes and sandals packed the ancient city, now dotted with luxury hotels and air-conditioned shopping malls, on Friday after flooding in on planes, buses and trains for the annual rites.
This year's Hajj, one of the world's biggest annual religious gatherings, could break attendance records, officials said.
"As the Hajj draws near, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia prepares... for the largest Islamic gathering in history," Minister of Hajj and Umrah Tawfiq al Rabiah said in a video published by the ministry this week.
Rites include circling the Kaaba, the large black cube in Mecca's Grand Mosque, praying on Mount Arafat and "stoning the devil" by throwing pebbles at three giant concrete columns representing the devil.
More than two million people from more than 160 countries will attend, Rabiah said, marking a dramatic increase on the 926,000 from last year, when numbers were capped at one million following the Covid-19 pandemic.
About 1.5 million pilgrims from abroad had already arrived by Wednesday evening, Saudi authorities have said.
In 2019, about 2.5 million people took part. Only 10,000 were allowed in 2020, at the height of the coronavirus pandemic, rising to nearly 59,000 a year later.
The Hajj is among the five pillars of Islam and must be undertaken by all Muslims with the means at least once in their lives.
Travellers from around the world have been pouring into Jeddah's modernised airport, some of them using streamlined visa services to disembark from planes straight onto buses to their accommodation.
Some 24,000 buses will be in service to ferry the pilgrims, as well as 17 trains capable of moving 72,000 people every hour, officials said.
More than 32,000 health workers will also be on hand to help fend off heatstroke, dehydration and exhaustion in the scorching Saudi Arabian heat.
"It is an unbelievable feeling that is very emotional," Souad bin Oueis, a 60-year-old Moroccan pilgrim, said after arriving on her first visit to Saudi Arabia along with her husband.
This Hajj will be the biggest since the requirement for women to be accompanied by male guardians was dropped in 2021.
This year, the maximum age limit has also been scrapped, meaning thousands of elderly will be among those contending with Saudi summer temperatures that are expected to reach 44 degrees Celsius (111 Fahrenheit).
The Hajj rituals begin late on Sunday at the Grand Mosque in Mecca. The worshippers will sleep in tents on Monday night and spend Tuesday at Mount Arafat, the climax of the Hajj, where the Prophet Mohammed is believed to have delivered his final sermon.
After casting pebbles in the "stoning of the devil" ritual on Wednesday, marking the start of the Eid al Adha holiday, pilgrims return to Mecca to perform a farewell "tawaf", circling seven times around the Kaaba.